Ideally, I would like to see the ranges for each estimate. Is this possible?
IPUMS-USA is a provider of microdata (individual-level records), so there are no aggregate or summary statistics in the data extract. However, you can generate estimates and margins of error for these generated estimates using the microdata. Alternatively, if you are looking for aggregate statistics then you can obtain these through NHGIS.
I understand having to aggregate the data to obtain summary estimates, but I’m still unclear on how to obtain the margin of error estimates from this aggregated data. I’m not even sure if this is a question for this forum, but I have exhausted many other avenues.
The margin of error is simply one half of the confidence interval, which you can compute after estimating the standard deviation. More details on confidence intervals can be found here, or through a Google search. The method of estimating the standard deviation depends on your stats package, but you should be able to find more information on this in the manual for your stats package or through online documentation.