These seemingly inconsistent observations are rather differences in the universe of the various questions. EMPSTAT indicates whether persons were part of the labor force, and if so, whether they were currently unemployed. This variable was determined on the basis of answers to a series of questions relating to the person’s activities during the preceding week. In particular the universe is open to all non-child individuals. The UHRSWORKLY and WKSWORK1 variables, on the other hand, are determined by asking persons about their work during the previous calendar year. In particular the universe for UHRSWORKLY and WKSWORK1 are restricted to non-child individuals who worked in the previous year.