The NHGIS project, housed in the Minnesota Population Center, offers many of the Census summary tables as far back as 1790. While NHGIS is primarily focused on mapping data, the summary tables can be extracted independent of shape files as .csv files with optional descriptive headers. In your case, you can create one .csv file for each census year with the population of each state broken down by age and household income.
If the available Census tables are not sufficient for your purposes, IPUMS-USA provides the necessary microdata to create your own tables. You can find online tutorials for using IPUMS-USA microdata here.
Hope this helps.