I came across the attached figure on page 32 in Autor and Wasserman 2013 (https://economics.mit.edu/files/8754), and I am looking for the incarceration variable used to produce the figure. It seems like the variable crime would be asking for exactly what I am interested in. However, it’s only available for 1850-1860, and it can’t be the variable the authors have used.
I found that others have used institutionalization rate (gqtype) as a proxy for incarceration in prisons and jails in the past. Could this be the variable that I am looking for? Or is there another IPUMS variable measuring incarceration that I am currently not aware of?
Any hints would be greatly appreciated.