How can I use CPS data to estimate eligibility for Social Security benefits?
I believe TRIM3 (Urban Institute) models this.
The IPUMS-CPS variable INCSS, available in ASEC samples, indicates how much social security income a respondent received (based on self-report). The corresponding WHYSS1 and WHYSS2 variables can be used to identify the reason a respondent received Social Security payments. Identifying eligibility (while not receiving benefits) is likely more difficult. Information on Disability and retirement status (using EMPSTAT code 36) is available, as well as income information. Depending on the benefits you are interested in, other variables may be helpful as well. I recommend looking through the variables relating to income, poverty, and health insurance as well as the household level economic variables relating to benefits to see if what you are looking for is available.
I hope this helps.