IPUMS-CPS provides the information collected in the Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey. The CPS is designed to measure unemployment at a given point in time, which is presumably why they chose a reference period of ‘last week’.
While not perfect, you could use the EMPSTAT and DURUNEMP variables to infer information about the past year. If someone is currently employed, then by definition, they were employed at some point in the past year. Unfortunately, it is not possible to determine how long respondents have been employed. If someone is currently unemployed, you can use the DURUNEMP variable to determine how long they have been continuously unemployed. Additionally, the March ASEC samples include variables that record the total number of weeks worked and the total number of weeks unemployed in the past year.
Hope this helps.