I am looking for data that reports productivity loss in the work, including absenteeism and presenteeism.
The data available through IPUMS CPS may have the information you are looking for. IPUMS CPS provides harmonized variables from the Current Population Survey. In particular, the ABSENT variable identifies whether persons who did not work during the previous week were temporarily absent, and if so, whether they were absent due to a layoff or some other reason. WHYABSNT goes a step further and reports the specific reason for absence. Other variables of interest may be available under the work category.